Learn Kiswahili #THE LANGUAGE REVOLUTION with Joseph Sarimbo – Kiswahili Noun Class Lesson Two

Greetings my fellow Kiswahili learners

.

Karibu…….Welcome again. Let us quickly revise Greetings, as we greet each other and meet again! Our  #LanguageRevolution. Journey of the millineum!

http://exploremotherlandafrica.com/the-languagerevolution-learn-kiswahili-with-joseph-sarimbo-1/

Our  second Kiswahili lesson plan   touches on grammar and noun classes, a crucial component in Kiswahili #THELANGUAGEREVOLUTION…..let us delve my fellow warriors #SHUJAA

Learn Kiswahili #THELANGUAGEREVOLUTION… at your doorstep with Joseph Sarimbo…! Lesson One

COMMAND SIMPLE IMPERATIVE (command or an instruction, telling someone what to do or influencing behaviour). To make command simple imperative you will need to drop infinitive KU for the non-monosyllabic verb and keep infinitive KU for the monosyllabic verb.

Let us view some examples to get the gist of it……….

Kupika: To cook               Pika chakula                 Cook food

Kusoma: To read             Soma kitabu                  Read a book.

Kuimba: To sing              Imba wimbo                  Sing a song.

Kuchukua : To take         Chukua kitabu               Take a book

Kula :To eat                     Kula chakula                    Eat food

Kunywa: To drink           Kunywa chai                   Drink tea.

 

VERB “TO BE” IN PRESENT

“To be” is expressed with monosyllabic KUWA ( to be) in other tenses, But in present is expressed with:

Positive: NI
Negative: SI

Mti ni mrefu            The tree is tall.
Mti si mrefu tree     The tree is not tall.
Mtoto ni mdogo       The child is small.
Mtoto si mdogo        The child is not small.
Kitabu ni kizuri        The book is good
Kitabu si kizuri         The book is not good

 

The core of sentence construction all essentially relates to the noun class. For example in the case of possessive pronouns, it takes a subject prefix depending on the noun class. In our agreement charts, we have a noun prefix and a subject prefix. Noun prefix are used with adjectives
Subject prefixes are used with possessive pronouns and also during verb constructions

There are 15 NOUN CLASSES in Kiswahili
They are grouped into characteristics and vowel harmony

Every noun class has both singular and plural. Class one and two are animate classes. All the animate( living things)take prefixes from these classes.

This noun class consist of the following nouns

  • People M- singular and WA- plural
    People nouns

Class 1: Animate which start with M or M(W)

Class 2: Animate which start with WA.

(1&2) are singular & plural.

Example:

mtoto/watoto [child/children]
mgeni/wageni [visitor/visitors]
mfaransa/wafaransa [French person/French people]
mjomba/wajomba [uncle/uncles]
mke/wake [wife/wives]
mkulima/wakulima [farmer/farmers]
mpishi/wapishi [cook/cooks]
msichana/wasichana [girl/girls]
mtu/watu [person/people]
mume/waume [husband/husbands]
mvulana/wavulana [boy/boys]
mzee/wazee [elder/elders]
mzungu/wazungu [white man/woman/white men/women]
mjerumani/wajerumani [German person/German people]
mwanamume/wanaume [man/men]
mwanamke/wanawake [woman/women]
mwalimu/walimu [teacher/teachers]
mwanafunzi/wanafunzi [student/students]
mwafrika/waafrika [African person/African people]

When forming sentences and using a verb, it will be a,  in singular if you use third person singular and –wa , in plural

But when you use relative class for class 9/10 with possessive you will use the prefix of the same classes.

Examples

Rafiki yangu alikuja nyumbani. [My friend came home.]
Rafiki zangu walikuja nyumbani. [ My Friends came home.]
Mama yangu anapika kuku. [My mother is cooking chicken.]
Mama wanapika kuku. [Mothers are cooking chicken.]

Class 3/4 are for nouns (things) which start with M and plural start MI

This noun class has the following nouns:

1. majina ya miti [names of trees]
2. majina ya mimea [names of plants]
3. sehemu za mwili [body parts]

nouns that take M- in singular and MI- in plural, radicals that start with a vowel:
nouns that take MW- in singular and MI- in plural
particular cases: singular prefix MU-

Majina ya miti _Names of trees.

mti/miti [tree/trees]
mnazi/minazi [coconut tree/coconut trees]
mchungwa/michungwa [orange tree/orange trees]
mwembe/miembe [mango tree/mango trees]
mtofaa/mitofaa [apple tree/apple trees]
mpapai/mipapai [papaya tree/papaya trees]
mndimu/mindimu [lime tree/lime trees]
mpera/mipera [guava tree/guava trees]
mgomba/migomba [banana tree/banana trees]

Sehemu za mwili _Body parts

mdomo/midomo [mouth/mouths]
mkono/mikono [hand/hands]
mguu/miguu [leg/legs]
mfupa/mifupa [bone/bones]
mgongo/migongo [back/backs]
moyo/mioyo [heart/hearts]
mwili/miili [body/bodies

Nouns that take M- in singular and MI- in plural

mfano/mifano [example/examples]
mji/miji [city/cities]
mkoba/mikoba [bag/bags]
mfuko/mifuko [bag/bags]
mlango/milango [door/doors]
mtihani/mitihani [exam/exams]/tests]
mlima/milima [mountain/mountains]
mpira/mipira [ball/balls]
mkate/mikate [bread/breads]
mto/mito [river/rivers]
mungu/miungu [god/gods]
mchezo/michezo [game/games]
moto/mioto [fire/fires]
msikiti/misikiti [mosque/mosques]
msitu/misitu [forest/forests]
mswaki/miswaki [toothbrush/toothbrushes]
mto/mito [river/rivers, pillow/pillows]

Nouns that take MW- in singular and MI- in plural

mwaka/miaka [year/years]
mwavuli/miavuli [umbrella/umbrellas]
mwezi/miezi [month/months]
mwiba/miiba [thorn/thorns]
mwisho/miisho [end/ ends]

Particular cases: singular prefix

MU-
muhindi/mihindi [corn]

muhogo/mihogo [cassava/cassavas]
muwa/miwa [sugarcane]
1. Mti ulianguka. [The tree fell.]
Miti ilianguka. [The trees fell.]
2. Mkono unauma. [The hand hurts.]
Mikono inauma. [The hands hurt.]
3. Mkoba umeoshwa. [The bag has been washed.]
Mikoba imeoshwa. [The bags have been washed.]

Class 5/6

This is for nouns which plural start with MA. Singular can start with any Noun but plural must start with MA.Nouns in this class can start with any letter in their singular form but their plural forms must take MA-.
This noun class has the following nouns:

A). manufactured products, natural or built places, abstract or concrete
concepts
B). sehemu za mwili [parts of the body]
C). matunda na vitu vya kawaida [fruits and natural objects]
D). majina ya vitu ambavyo havihesabiki [These nouns exist only in the plural
form and are things which cannot be counted. They take MA- in both
singular and plural form]
E) majina ya watu few names of people.

A). Manufactured products, natural or built places,
abstract or concrete concepts

1. Manufactured products:

blanketi/mablanketi [blanket/blankets]
dirisha/madirisha [window/windows]
gari/magari [car/cars]
gazeti/magazeti [newspaper/newspapers]
godoro/magodoro [mattress/mattresses]
sanduku/masanduku [box/boxes]
jiko/meko/majiko [gas cooker/gas cookers]

2. Natural or Built places:

daraja/madaraja [bridge/bridges]
duka/maduka [shop/shops]
shamba/mashamba [farm/farms]
soko/masoko [market/markets]
ziwa/maziwa [lake/lakes]
jimbo/majimbo [state/states]

3. Abstract or Concrete concepts:

jina/majina [name/names]
kosa/makosa [mistake/mistakes]
neno/maneno [word/words]
jambo/mambo [issue/issues]
jiwe/mawe [stone/stones]
somo/masomo [subject/subjects; lesson/lessons]
wazo/mawazo [thought/thoughts]
jibu/majibu
swali/maswali
jukumu/majukumu [responsibility/responsibilities]
juma/majuma [week/weeks

B). Sehemu za mwili [parts of the body]

jicho/macho [eye/eyes]
jino/meno [tooth/teeth]
bega/mabega [shoulder/shoulders]
goti/magoti [knee/knees]
sikio/masikio [ear/ears]
tumbo/matumbo [stomach/bowels]
paja/mapaja [thigh/thighs]

C). Matunda na vitu vya kawaida  [fruits and natural objects]

1.Fruits:

chungwa/machungwa [orange/oranges]
embe/maembe [mango/mangoes]
limau/malimau [lemon/lemons]
nanasi/mananasi [pineapple/pineapples]
papai/mapapai [pawpaw/pawpaws]
dafu/madafu [coconut/coconuts (with milk)]
tofaa/matofaa [apple/apples]

2. Natural Objects:

jani/majani [leaf/leaves]
yai/mayai [egg/eggs]
rinda/marinda [dress/dresses]

3. Majina ya vitu ambavyo havihesabiki [nouns of things that cannot be counted, whichexist only in the plural form

maji [water]
mafuta [oil]
mali [wealth]
maafa [misfortune]

Zingatia [Note]

When using a verb, this noun class uses LI- in singular and YA- in
plural for sentence formation.

Sentence Formation

Mifano:Example

1. Chungwa limenunuliwa. [The orange has been bought.]
Machungwa yamenunuliwa. [The oranges have been bought.]
2. Gari limefika. [The car has arrived.]
Magari yamefika. [The cars have arrived.]
3. Jicho linauma. [The eye hurts.]
Macho yanauma. [The eyes hurt.]
4. Maji yamemwagika. [The water has been poured.]

Class 7/8
Class 7 & 8 is for nouns which start with KI or CH / VI or VY

This noun class has the following nouns:
A). nouns that take KI- in singular and VI- in plural
B). nouns that take CH- in singular and VY- in plural
C). body parts [sehemu za mwili]
D). names of languages [majina ya lugha]
E) some few animates

A). Nouns that take KI- in singular and VI- in plural
kiti/viti [chair/chairs]

kitabu/vitabu [book/books]
kiatu/viatu [shoe/shoes]
kisu/visu [knife/knives]
kikombe/vikombe [cup/cups]
kilima/vilima [hill/hills]
kisiwa/visiwa [island/islands]
kiazi/viazi [potato/potatoes]
kitunguu/vitunguu [onion/onions]
kitu/vitu [thing/things]
kitanda/vitanda [bed/beds]
kioo/vioo [mirror/mirrors]
kiberiti/viberiti [match/matches]

B). Nouns that take CH- in singular and VY- in plural

chuo/vyuo [school/schools; college/colleges]
choo/vyoo [restroom/restrooms]
chakula/vyakula [food/foods]
chumba/vyumba [room/rooms]
cheti/vyeti [certificate/certificates]
chama/vyama [party/parties; association/associations]
chuma/vyuma [iron/irons]
chombo/vyombo [container/containers; utensil/utensils]
cheo/vyeo [rank/ranks]

C). Body Parts [sehemu za mwili]

kichwa/vichwa [head/heads]
kiuno/viuno [waist/waists]
kifua/vifua [chest/chests]
kidole/vidole [finger/fingers]

D). Names of Languages [majina ya lugha]

Kiarabu [Arabic]
Kifaransa [French]
Kiingereza [English]
Kichina [Chinese]
Kijapani [Japanese]
Kichwa kinauma. [The head is hurting.]
Vichwa vinauma. [The heads are hurting.]
2. Kiti kilivunjwa na mtoto. [The chair was broken by a child]
Viti vilivunjwa. [The chairs were broken.]
3. Chuo kimefungwa. [The college has been closed.]
Vyuo vimefungwa. [The college have been closed.]
4. Chakula kitapikwa. [The food will be cooked.]
Vyakula vitapikwa. [The foods will be cooked.]

Class 9/10  : These is nouns which singular and plural are the same.

 

Example:
Habari/habari. News

barua/barua [letter/letters]
chupa/chupa [bottle/bottles]
dawa/dawa [drug/drugs; medicine/medicines]
kalamu/kalamu [pen/pens]
karatasi/karatasi [paper/papers]
ngoma/ngoma [drum/drums]
sabuni/sabuni [soap/soaps]
sahani/sahani [plate/plates]
sufuria/sufuria [pan/pans]
suruali/suruali [trouser/trousers]
chaki/chaki [chalk/chalk]
dola/dola [dollar/dollars]
kompyuta/kompyuta [computer/computers]
nguo/nguo [cloth/cloths]
soksi/soksi [sock/socks]
shilingi/shilingi [shilling/shillings]
meza/meza [table/tables]
taa/taa [light/lights]
senti/senti [cent/cents]
nyumba/nyumba [house/houses]

Nature:

ardhi/ardhi [earth; ground]
bahari/bahari [sea]
baridi/baridi [cold]
barafu/barafu [ice]
hewa/hewa [air; atmosphere]
nuru/nuru [light]
mvua/mvua [rain]
njia/njia [way]
bandari/bandari [harbor]
barabara/barabara [road]
nchi/nchi [country]

Abstract concepts:

ajali/ajali [accident/accidents]
bahati/bahati [luck/lucks]
furaha/furaha [joy/joys]
hasara/hasara [loss/losses]
hatari/hatari [danger/dangers]
huzuni/huzuni [sadness/sadnesses]
nguvu/nguvu [strength/strengths]
shida/shida [problem/problems]
thamani/thamani [value/values]
dakika/dakika [minute/minutes]
sifa/sifa [praise/praises; reputation/reputations]
ndoto/ndoto [dream/dreams]
shughuli/shughuli [business/businesses]

B). Foods, fruits, and vegetables

chai/chai [tea/teas]
chumvi/chumvi [salt/salts]
kahawa/kahawa [coffee/coffees]
mboga/mboga [vegetable/vegetables]
nazi/nazi [coconut/coconuts]
ndizi/ndizi [banana/bananas]
nyama/nyama [meat/meats]
pilipili/pilipili [pepper/[peppers]
siagi/siagi [butter; margarine]
sukari/sukari [sugar/sugars]
njugu/njugu [groundnut/groundnuts]

Zingatia [Note]

mbwa/mbwa [dog/dogs]
paka/paka [cat/cats]
ng’ombe/ng’ombe [cow/cows]
simba/simba [lion/lions]
ndovu/ndovu [elephant/elephants]
Ndege/ndege [birds]
kuku/kuku [hen/hens]
kasuku/kasuku [parrot/parrots]
tai/tai [eagle/eagles]
bata mzinga/bata mzinga turkey/turkeys]

 

Wadudu [insects]
nyuki/nyuki [bee/bees]
mbu/mbu [mosquito/mosquitoes]
nzi/nzi [fly/flies]
When using a verb, this noun class uses I- in singular and ZI- in plural
for sentence formation.

Sentence Formation

Mifano:
1. Kalamu imeanguka. [The pen has fallen.]
Kalamu zimeanguka. [The pens have fallen.]
2. Njia imefungwa. [The way has been closed.]

Njia zimefungwa. [The ways have been closed.]

Class 9/10 is a relative class. All relative nouns belong to class 9/10.

Examples

baba/baba [father/fathers]
babu/babu [grandfather/grandfathers]
dada/dada [sister/sisters]
kaka/kaka [brother/brothers]
mama/mama [mother/mothers]
Bibi/bibi [grandmother/grandmothers]
rafiki/rafiki [friend/friends]
shangazi/shangazi [aunt/aunts]

Class 11
This class noun can start with U or WA
This class is a singular class. If the noun need plural will borrow class 10 or class 6

U – U [U – ZI]
U – U [U – U]

This noun class has the following nouns:
A). concrete nouns with various plurals
B). uncountable nouns, with no plural form
C). nouns that are mostly formed from adjectives, nominals, or verbal roots
D). names of countries

A). Concrete nouns with various plurals
U – NY:

uso/nyuso [face/faces]
uzi/nyuzi [thread/threads]
ua/nyua [courtyard/courtyards]
ufa/nyufa [crack/cracks]
uma/nyuma [fork/forks]

U – ND:

ulimi/ndimi [tongue/tongues]
udevu/ndevu [beard/beards]

U – MB:

ubao/mbao [board/boards]
ubavu/mbavu [rib/ribs]
ubawa/mbawa [wing/wings]

U – Ø:

unywele/nywele [one hair/hair]
ufunguo/funguo [key/keys]
ukuta/kuta [wall/walls]
upande/pande [side/sides]
uvumbi/vumbi [grain of dust/dust]
upanga/panga [machete/machetes]
upepo/pepo [wind/winds]

W – NY:

wakati/nyakati [time/times]
wembe/nyembe [razor blade/razor blades]
wimbo/nyimbo [song/songs]

B). Uncountable nouns, with no plural form .Nouns in this category doesn’t have plural sentence formation when using a verb(s).

udongo [soil; ground]
ugali [corn paste]
uji [porridge]
ulimwengu [world]
umeme [electricity]
umri [age]
unga [flour]
usingizi [sleep]
uwongo [a lie]

C). Nouns that are mostly formed from adjectives, nominals, or verbal roots
Nouns in this category doesn’t have plural when using a
verb(s). Nominal roots: NOUN – NOUN

jamaa – ujamaa [group of people – community]
kijana – ujana [young person – young age]
mzee – uzee [old person – old age]
maskini – umaskini [poor person – poverty]
mchawi – uchawi [witch – witchcraft]
mfalme – ufalme [king – kingdom]
mtoto – utoto [child – childhood]
Verbal roots: VERB – NOUN
kuiba – uwizi [to steal – theft]
kukosa – ukosefu [to miss – deficiency]
kupenda – upendo [to love – love]
kuweza – uwezo [to be able – capacity]
kusahau – usahaulifu [to forget – forgetfulness]

D). Names of countries

Ufaransa [France]
Uganda [Uganda]
Uingereza [England]
Ujerumani [Germany]
Ureno [Portugal]
Urusi [Russia]

Zingatia [Note]

When using a verb, this noun class uses U- in singular and ZI or YA in plural depending in class
for sentence formation. However, uncountable nouns and nouns that are
formed from adjectival, nominal, or verbal roots only use U-.

Sentence Formation

Mifano:
1. Ulimi unauma. [The tongue hurts.]
Ndimi zinauma. [The tongues hurt.]
2. Ufunguo umepotea. [The key has been lost.]
Funguo zimepotea. [The keys have been lost.]
3. Ubavu umevunjika. [The rib has broken.]
Mbavu zimevunjika. [The ribs have broken.]
4. Ugali umepikwa. [The cornmeal has been cooked.]
5. Upendo wao umesifika. [Their love has been praised.]

Class 15
This class is for all verbs change to become a noun.

Example
Kusoma, kuimba ,kucheza.

Class 16,17,18 we call them location class

Noun class Subject prefix
1. Mtoto
2.watoto
3.mkate U
4.mikate i
5.Tunda li
6. Matunda ya
7. Kitabu ki
8.vitabu vi
9.habari i
10. Habari zi
11. Usiku u
15. Kusoma ku
16. Mahali pa
17. Mjini ku
18.mwilini M(u)
Mtoto wangu My child
Watoto wangu My children
Mtoto wako Your child
Kitabu chake His/Her book
Usiku wetu Our night
Mkate wenu Your bread
Maisha yao Their life

 

Learn Kiswahili Here!

#CreatePreneurAfrica Sipho Mushwana , LAW OF RHYTHM. LAW OF ONENESS

KARIBU.....He sees his calling as a mission for all to fall in place one day! SIPHO Mushwana has a soul passion. A soul passion of UBUNTU. A writer, a musician, and a teacher and a soul Pan African visionist...he is ready to set stage for the unity of Africa across tribal or geographic locations!

"I am fully in the field of Afrikan Culture and education for the development of the Afrikan nation" ...........Sipho Mushwana

UBUNTU is the essence of life, the Afrikan way. Sipho Mushwana, #ExploremotherladAfrica author and editor, and also  on a screenplay team of ‘ SHUJAA, KIROHO MTOTO  set up to be the feature film launch of the millennium..…..

http://exploremotherlandafrica.com/createprenuerafrica-proudly-tanzanian-actor-kihaka-gnd/

 

His life chapters are engraved in his collection of  expressive writings:

  • ONCE WAS IMPORTANT
  • GOVERNMENT TERRORISTS
  • THEY KNELT AND PRAYED MAMA
  • BETRAYAL

His soul introduction is circumvented in his essays

  • ÚBUNTU,
  • NURTURED BY NATURE
  • CHURCHES IN AFRICA

He grows in his creativity and content and rhythms of emancipation He has engaged in multiple projects in various studios and keeps shining the light.

He has a soul passion for KISWAHILI.  The liberating and uniting language across tribes and ethnicity for A Pan-African cause – The world is awakening into a realization and uprise of a continent bearing centuries of downgrade and shame.

Meet #CreateprenuerAfrica  SIPHO MUSHWANA  steering the realms of PAN AFRIKA

Tell us what drives you? What is your true passion in life?

What drives me is my soul calling. A purpose driven life. I see myself as one of the single rays of the sun that illuminates the entire universe as a single droplet combined to make the biggest ocean.

What drives my movement is the journey of self-experience. That is the biggest aspiration. To fully explore, experience and manifest the god, Goddess power and essence in me.

How did you find your passion and how old were you?

I became conscious of myself in1999 when nature and the universe ushered me into the area of PAN-AFRICANISM AND AFRIKAN SPIRITUALITY. Since then I have been growing

What about your passion appeals to you the most?

By the  UNIVERSAL LAW OF RHYTHM,  nothing is permanent. All things come and pass. So I keep real and true  to my PURPOSE OF THIS REINCARNATION as I also acknowledge that  soul transition may happen at any moment in life

When was the first time you were paid for your passion?

Depends on what payment is defined as. I have been paid with the realisation of my purpose in this universe. Rewarded I can say. A gift beyond borders

Let’s develop the script fully and make it more competent for the market THEN THE UNIVERSE WILL AWARD THE PROJECT WITH SUPPORT FINANCIALLY

What kept you going when you thought about giving up?

Even if it is 100% overcast in the day, The sun never fails to give light. This natural phenomenon inspires me to tackle challenges with all courage and self-realness

What do you have to say to all of the people who doubted you?

OK, another person’s eyes are my mirror to see some parts of me and the feedback fuels my energy field to think extra creatively and work extra harder in all that I do. To them, I say I always take their doubts for motivation BECAUSE IN MY INNER WORLD PESSIMISM HAS NO PLACE. I advise all to always see the light in the next person and also have faith in that EVEN THE LITTLE SPARK OF A FLAME CAN GROW INTO THE BIGGEST FIRE OF LIFE.

What motivates you every day to be even more successful?
What advice do you give to aspiring creatives who look up to you?

I advise all to get intact with their inner selves and discover the nature of creation in them. Nurture that into self-manifestation. All is possible when we align our psyche body soul into the laws of the universe